Monte Pelée começa a entrar em erupção, enterrando cidade caribenha

Monte Pelée começa a entrar em erupção, enterrando cidade caribenha


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Em 7 de maio de 1902, o Monte Pelée da Martinica inicia a erupção vulcânica mais mortal do século 20. No dia seguinte, a cidade de Saint Pierre, que alguns chamaram de Paris do Caribe, foi praticamente apagada do mapa.

O Monte Pelée, cujo nome significa careca em francês, era uma montanha de 4.500 pés no lado norte da ilha caribenha de Martinica. Em 2 de abril de 1902, novas saídas de vapor foram localizadas no pico, que dava para a cidade portuária de Saint Pierre. Três semanas depois, tremores foram sentidos na ilha e o Monte Pelée expeliu uma nuvem de cinzas.

Apanhados no meio de uma eleição importante, os residentes de Saint Pierre não deram atenção aos avisos da montanha e evacuaram. Os residentes próximos acreditavam erroneamente que o único perigo do vulcão era o fluxo de lava e que se a lava começasse a fluir, eles teriam muito tempo para fugir para um local seguro. Na verdade, algumas pessoas vieram de fora da cidade para ver a ação, mesmo depois que as cinzas da erupção começaram a bloquear as estradas.

Em 7 de maio, a atividade no vulcão aumentou dramaticamente e as explosões ficaram significativamente mais fortes. Durante a noite, houve vários tremores fortes e uma nuvem de gás com uma temperatura de mais de 3.000 graus Fahrenheit se espalhou da montanha. Finalmente, uma tremenda explosão nas primeiras horas da manhã enviou uma avalanche de cinzas ferventes montanha abaixo.

A cidade de Saint Pierre foi enterrada em poucos minutos e praticamente todos morreram instantaneamente. Houve apenas dois sobreviventes relatados - um era um prisioneiro mantido em uma cela subterrânea. Diz a lenda que ele se tornou uma atração circense. Além disso, 15 navios no porto viraram com a erupção. Um navio conseguiu se manter à tona com metade da tripulação sobrevivente, embora a maioria tenha sofrido queimaduras graves.


Monte Pel e

O Monte Pel e foi a erupção vulcânica mais mortal do século XX. Quando a terrível notícia da erupção do Monte Pelee chegou ao mundo, os habitantes de todos os países ficaram horrorizados ao pensar que 30.000 pessoas deveriam ser mortas em tão curto espaço de tempo. Isso certamente foi suficiente para atrair a atenção humana e a simpatia em todos os lugares.

A erupção cataclísmica do Monte Santa Helena em 1980, no sudoeste de Washington, deu início a uma década marcada por mais desastres e crises vulcânicas em todo o mundo do que qualquer outra na história registrada. Vulcões mataram mais pessoas (mais de 28.500) na década de 1980 do que durante os 78 anos após a erupção do Monte Pelee (Martinica) em 1902. O vulcão mais mortal de todos os tempos foi Tambora na Ilha Sumbawa, Indonésia, que matou mais de 88.000 pessoas em 1815. A maioria morreu como resultado indireto da forte queda de cinzas, que cobriu as plantações em crescimento e poluiu o abastecimento de água em uma vasta região, incluindo várias ilhas vizinhas. Ainda mais bizarro é o desastre que ocorreu quando a Krakatau, na Indonésia, outra ilha na mesma cadeia vulcânica, explodiu em 1883. O colapso de sua caldeira na água levantou ondas gigantescas que afogaram 36.000 vítimas em costas próximas e distantes.

Antes do desastre da Martinica, o Monte Pelee trombeteou, ameaçou, uivou, berrou e quebrou em terrível majestade. Por três meses, esses gritos e advertências foram mantidos. Por oitenta anos o Monte Pelee esteve quieto, mas, mesmo assim, era a saída natural de um dos principais rios derretidos. Como já haviam se passado oitenta anos desde a última grande agonia do Monte Pelee, os cientistas afirmaram que era um vulcão extinto. Por muitos anos, um lago plácido ocupou a cratera, mas o rio derretido vital que o Monte Pelee representava nunca parou de funcionar por uma hora ou um dia nas profundezas da terra, o rio de fogo latejava e pulsava com força e poder.

O governo da França enviou uma escola de cientistas para impedir o êxodo da Martinica. Esses cientistas profissionais, que foram enviados, sabiam menos sobre a situação do que os animais e cobras que habitavam o lugar e, assim, fugiram, às pressas, do perigo. Os jovens enviados pelo governo francês estavam em péssimas condições, pois não tinham conhecimento da situação, nem tiveram oportunidade de investigar.

A missão para a qual foram enviados era fraudulenta e ignorante. Não era do interesse da ciência, era um esquema mercenário para impedir o êxodo do povo da Martinica. Este corpo de cientistas investidos cumpriu a missão para a qual foram enviados e proclamou a falsa doutrina de que o perigo para a Martinica havia acabado. Esta declaração de segurança não satisfez os habitantes. Devido à determinação do povo em deixar a Martinica, o governador foi forçado a interromper o êxodo pelo poder governamental. O governador, que antes se preparava para deixar a Martinica, acompanhado de sua família, também dos cientistas, foi forçado a ficar, embora ansiosos por partir.

Em 07 de maio de 1902, o Monte Pelee da Martinica inicia a erupção vulcânica mais mortal do século XX. Nesse dia, a cidade de Saint Pierre, que alguns chamaram de Paris do Caribe, foi praticamente apagada do mapa. Em 1902, provavelmente a nu e ardente mais desastrosa da história varreu quase todos os 28.000 habitantes de St. Pierre na ilha da Martinica depois que a nuvem rolou pelos flancos do Monte Pel e.

Os fluxos de lava são altamente destrutivos e podem destruir tudo em seu caminho. Uma vez que as pessoas habitualmente se estabelecem em vales e áreas baixas, os fluxos de lava podem representar uma ameaça para edifícios, agricultura e outras atividades. No entanto, devido ao movimento relativamente lento dos fluxos de lava, a ameaça à vida humana é extremamente baixa.

Um fluxo piroclástico é uma mistura turbulenta de vidro inflado (derivado diretamente do magma derretido) e fragmentos de rocha suspensos em gás que se move rapidamente (mais de 60 mph) sobre a superfície do solo. O fenômeno é caracteristicamente o produto de violentas explosões vulcânicas, especialmente associadas a magmas altamente viscosos que entraram no vulcão e se solidificaram para bloquear o conduíte (domos de tampão). Uma nuvem densa de fragmentos de rocha e gás é ejetada do vulcão (seja lateralmente, pela lateral do vulcão ou verticalmente através da abertura central) e se comporta como um líquido pesado.

Os fluxos piroclásticos podem ser incrivelmente destrutivos. Uma das catástrofes mais conhecidas deste século foi o resultado desse fluxo. O Monte Pelee, na ilha de Martinica, entrou em erupção em 1902, destruindo a cidade de St. Pierre em questão de minutos e matando quase todos os seus 30.000 habitantes. Como os fluxos de lava, os fluxos piroclásticos tendem a percorrer vales e vias de drenagem. As populações localizadas em tais vales, especialmente perto do próprio vulcão, são particularmente suscetíveis ao fluxo. Ao contrário dos fluxos de lava, no entanto, há pouca chance de evacuação uma vez que o fluxo piroclástico é gerado.


O Monte Pelée começa a entrar em erupção, enterrando a cidade caribenha - HISTÓRIA

por Julia Rosen terça-feira, 7 de abril de 2015

A erupção vulcânica do Monte Pelée na Martinica em 1902. Crédito: Biblioteca do Congresso.

Na virada do século 20, a cidade de St. Pierre era conhecida como o & ldquoParis do Caribe. & Rdquo Situada na costa noroeste da ilha francesa da Martinica, ela ostentava um porto movimentado onde os navios carregavam cargas preciosas de açúcar e rum, e usurpou a capital oficial - Fort-de-France - como o centro cultural da colônia e rsquos. Mas St. Pierre tinha um problema: ficava na sombra de um enorme vulcão.

Como a maioria das Pequenas Antilhas, a Martinica foi construída por vulcões. É parte de um arco de ilha ativo que traça a fronteira onde a crosta oceânica subduz sob a placa do Caribe, formando uma barreira perfurada exuberante entre o Mar do Caribe e o Oceano Atlântico.

Um desses vulcões, o Monte Pelée, ficava a apenas 7 quilômetros de St. Pierre e se elevava quase 1.400 metros acima da cidade. Suas encostas suaves e verdejantes desciam pesadamente até o mar, cortadas em alguns lugares por cortes profundos e brutos. A cratera do cume atraiu caminhantes aventureiros que ocasionalmente sentiam o cheiro de gases pútridos. Mas, pelo que os residentes de St. Pierre sabiam, o Monte Pelée era um gigante gentil. O vulcão havia rangido e grunhido em 1792, e cobriu o lobo norte da Martinica com cinzas finas uma vez em 1851. Mas depois de mais algumas tosses e alguns deslizamentos menores, Pelée ficou quieto por meio século.

Quando rugiu para a vida novamente em 1902, a montanha produziu uma das erupções mais mortais da história, desencadeando uma cascata de horrores sobre os residentes de St. Pierre antes de obliterar a cidade em um instante fatal. Também revolucionaria a compreensão dos geólogos sobre como funcionam os vulcões e os tipos de perigo que representam.

Maus presságios

Em abril de 1902, os primeiros sinais do despertar de Pelée & rsquos foram sutis: uma série de pequenos tremores sacudiu St. Pierre e nuvens de fumaça sulfurosa desceram da montanha. Outros sinais eram simplesmente misteriosos, como a ruptura de um cabo telegráfico subaquático conectando a Martinica à vizinha Dominica, ou o súbito aparecimento de um lago na caldeira.

Na noite de 2 de maio, no entanto, uma pequena erupção chamou a atenção da cidade. Testemunhas disseram que o cume de Pelée & rsquos pareceu pegar fogo, cuspindo pedras brilhantes e deixando o céu da meia-noite incandescente. Na manhã seguinte, os residentes encontraram pássaros que haviam caído do ar, carregados com o peso das cinzas, e um capitão de um navio notou peixes mortos flutuando no mar, possivelmente mortos pela onda de choque de um terremoto submarino.

Nos dias seguintes, a montanha continuou a fumegar, levando pessoas aterrorizadas do campo para St. Pierre, que os jornais relataram ser seguro. Mesmo lá, no entanto, as coisas estavam erradas: a Rivière Blanche no flanco sudoeste de Pelée & rsquos, que desaguava no mar ao norte da cidade, flutuava loucamente, às vezes ultrapassando suas margens, outras vezes desaparecendo completamente. Ninguém suspeitou que essas convulsões eram decorrentes do magma que subia das entranhas do vulcão e afetava as águas subterrâneas. No entanto, esses presságios inquietantes não passaram completamente despercebidos pelos residentes da cidade.

"Esta manhã, toda a população da cidade está alerta, e todos os olhares se voltam para o Monte Pelée, um vulcão extinto", escreveu Clara Prentiss, esposa do cônsul americano em St. Pierre, em uma carta para sua irmã. & ldquoTodo mundo está com medo de que o vulcão tenha entrado em ação para explodir e destruir toda a ilha. & rdquo

Na verdade, em 5 de maio, os eventos tomaram uma guinada mortal quando um enorme lahar rompeu a parede da cratera e desceu gritando pelo Rivière Blanche a velocidades superiores a 100 quilômetros por hora. Uma mistura devastadora de lama e água quente, o escorregador destruiu uma usina de processamento de açúcar na costa, matando quase duas dezenas de pessoas. Os destroços então se espalharam no oceano, produzindo um tsunami de 3 metros de altura que inundou St. Pierre.

Talvez o mais assustador de tudo, porém, tenha sido a praga de insetos e cobras que escorregaram da montanha, perturbados por seus paroxismos. Entre os invasores estavam centopéias gigantes e mortais víboras de 2 metros de comprimento, que ceifaram a vida de centenas de rebanhos e cerca de 50 pessoas, de acordo com alguns relatos. Os soldados atiraram nas serpentes nas ruas, no que seria um esforço inútil para proteger o povo de St. Pierre.

A erupção de Pelée e rsquos continuou a se intensificar. Em 6 de maio, chamas azuis anunciaram a chegada de magma na cratera quando uma cúpula de lava apareceu acima de sua borda. Em 7 de maio, a montanha estourou e um vulcão na vizinha St. Vincent explodiu, matando 1.500 pessoas. As autoridades, no entanto, insistiram que não havia nada a temer. No mesmo dia, membros de uma comissão nomeada pelo governador da ilha - cujo principal especialista era um professor de ciências do ensino médio - disseram ao jornal local que o Monte Pelée não representava perigo.

The Deadly Blast

A Rue Victor Hugo, uma das principais ruas comerciais de St. Pierre, conhecida como & # 34Paris do Caribe & # 34, é ilustrada em uma gravura em madeira anterior e vista em uma foto após a erupção do Monte Pelée em 1902. Crédito: ambos: Biblioteca do Congresso.

Há um debate sobre o que exatamente aconteceu em 8 de maio - Dia da Ascensão - mas uma coisa é certa: em poucos minutos, uma explosão infernal de gás quente e detritos vulcânicos obliterou St. Pierre. Momentos depois, todos, exceto um punhado de seus quase 30 mil moradores, estavam mortos, incluindo o governador, que viera com sua família para tranquilizar a população. A maioria das vítimas morreu de asfixia e queimaduras que queimaram a pele e os pulmões. (As análises subsequentes com base na madeira queimada produziram estimativas de temperatura, sugerindo que a nuvem de gás estava entre 350 e 400 graus Celsius.)

Uma testemunha, Victor Albert, assistiu à explosão de seu campo e descreveu os eventos que se seguiram ao jornal francês La Croix: & ldquoUm flash mais deslumbrante do que um relâmpago aconteceu ... Ao mesmo tempo, uma nuvem se formou no cume do Montagne [Monte] Pelée literalmente caiu sobre Saint-Pierre com tal rapidez que era impossível para alguém escapar. & Rdquo

A explosão nivelou a cidade, arremessando estátuas de pedra maciças a vários metros de seus poleiros - implicando que a nuvem atingiu velocidades superiores a 100 metros por segundo - e poupando apenas algumas paredes orientadas paralelamente à explosão. Por dias depois disso, St. Pierre pegou fogo. Os navios no porto fumegaram e afundaram. Quando os resgatadores finalmente entraram nas ruínas, eles retiraram de uma prisão um sobrevivente do desastre, Louis-Auguste Cyparis, que mais tarde fez uma turnê com o Barnum and Bailey Circus.

Mas, à medida que a fumaça se dissipava, os cientistas começaram a se perguntar o que exatamente aconteceu no Monte Pelée. Os geólogos tinham apenas uma compreensão rudimentar da vulcanologia na época, baseada quase inteiramente nas erupções históricas da Itália e do Monte Vesúvio, segundo o geólogo Jean-Claude Tanguy. Em um artigo de 1994, ele argumentou que isso pode explicar por que ninguém pensou em evacuar St. Pierre nos dias anteriores à erupção - a calamidade iminente estava simplesmente além da compreensão.

A catástrofe levou os geólogos a inventar um termo para a explosão que destruiu a cidade. Alfred Lacroix, membro do Levantamento Geológico Francês que escreveu o relato mais abrangente do desastre em 1904, apelidou o fenômeno de & ldquonuée ardente & rdquo, que significa nuvem brilhante ou em chamas. Na linguagem moderna, os geólogos classificariam esta mistura mortal de gás quente e rocha como um tipo de fluxo piroclástico, exemplos dos quais já foram observados durante outras erupções vulcânicas, incluindo o Monte St. Helens em 1980.

Na maior parte do século seguinte, porém, os geólogos debateram o que produziu Pelée & rsquos nuée ardente. Alguns disseram que a erupção rompeu a cúpula de lava recém-formada e se espalhou lateralmente para fora do ponto mais baixo da cratera, que ficava de frente para St. Pierre. Outros disseram que uma enorme coluna primeiro se ergueu no ar, depois desabou com seu próprio peso. Com apenas relatos de testemunhas oculares e depósitos de material erupcionado para continuar, os cientistas têm lutado para resolver a questão.

A Torre de Pelée

Com vista para a destruição de St. Pierre e da baía. Crédito: Biblioteca do Congresso.

A torre do Monte Pelée ergueu-se após a erupção, atingindo eventualmente 350 metros acima da borda da cratera. Crédito: Angelo Heilprin, domínio público.

Durante o verão de 1902, a inquietação de Pelée & rsquos continuou. Em 20 de maio, outra nuée ardente engolfou as ruínas de St. Pierre e, em 30 de agosto, uma erupção destruiu a vila de Morne Rouge, matando outras 1.000 a 1.500 pessoas. No entanto, o sinal mais óbvio da atividade contínua do vulcão é a cúpula de lava em forma de obelisco que começou a se elevar vigorosamente da caldeira.

& ldquoNenhuma das grandes cenas da natureza que eu tinha visto antes - o Matterhorn, as cúpulas do Yosemite, o colosso de Popocatépetl pairando sobre o ombro de Iztaccihuatl, ou o Grande Cañon do Colorado - me impressionou tanto quanto a vista da torre Pelée & rsquos & rdquo escreveu Angelo Heilprin em 1904. Heilprin foi um geólogo americano nascido na Hungria que estudou o Monte Pelée nos anos que se seguiram ao desastre e ficou particularmente fascinado com a torre.

Em uma carta de 1903 à Science, Heilprin relata que a espinha, com pouco mais de cem metros de largura na base, cresceu a taxas surpreendentes. Ela subiu 10 metros durante um período de oito dias e 6 metros em outro intervalo de quatro dias e, em seu pico, apareceu 350 metros acima da borda da cratera. Através das rachaduras na rocha, a lava às vezes podia ser vista brilhando dentro da torre, e uma vez, Heilprin observou o vapor subindo do cume, & ldquosugerindo uma passagem contínua ou canal que se estende da base ao cume. & Rdquo A torre finalmente desmoronou na primavera de 1903, mas não antes de Heilprin capturar imagens impressionantes que cimentaram seu lugar nos livros de registro geológico.

Embora não pudessem rivalizar com a grandeza do primeiro, espinhos semelhantes surgiram novamente no cume do Monte Pelée durante períodos posteriores de erupções, incluindo um ataque prolongado entre 1929 e 1932. Essas cúpulas e seus colapsos calamitosos foram observados pelo vulcanologista americano Frank Perret, que estabeleceu um observatório improvisado a menos de 3 quilômetros do cume. De lá, ele documentou os fluxos piroclásticos à medida que passavam por sua cabana, às vezes poupando-o por pouco.

Desde então, entretanto, o Monte Pelée não fez mais barulho. O Instituto de Física da Terra de Paris opera atualmente uma estação de monitoramento na Martinica, que permanece parte da França. A estação está equipada com uma rede de sismômetros para detectar qualquer indício de atividade vulcânica.

vista da costa de St. Pierre após a erupção de 1902, que matou 30.000 pessoas. Crédito: Tempest Anderson Photographic Archive no York Museums Trust.

Um século de pesquisa sobre a história de Pelée e rsquos, que remonta a milênios, revelou que a montanha pode ser violenta e imprevisível, exibindo muitos estilos eruptivos diferentes em escalas de tempo diferentes. Ainda assim, a erupção de 1902 se destaca por sua ferocidade absoluta e pela magnitude da tragédia que produziu. É considerado o desastre vulcânico mais mortal do século 20, e o terceiro mais mortal na história registrada, após a erupção de Tambora em 1815 e a explosão de 1883 no Krakatoa. No entanto, Tanguy argumenta que a erupção do Pelée & rsquos matou mais pessoas diretamente do que qualquer um desses dois vulcões, cuja devastação assumiu muitas formas adicionais, incluindo fome, doenças e tsunamis.

Mas, graças ao conhecimento adquirido ao estudar o Monte Pelée e sua nuée ardentes, muitas vidas foram poupadas. E uma coisa é certa: quando a montanha se mexer novamente, os geólogos estarão preparados.

* Atualização (6/4/18, 15:40 EDT): A segunda frase do segundo parágrafo, que afirmava anteriormente que o arco da ilha das Pequenas Antilhas & ldquota a fronteira onde a crosta oceânica da placa norte-americana se subduz sob a placa do Caribe, & rdquo foi atualizada para refletir a ambigüidade atual na localização da fronteira tecôntica entre as placas da América do Norte e da América do Sul com respeito à zona de subducção abaixo das Pequenas Antilhas.

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Hoje na História Geológica & # 8211 8 de maio de 1902 Monte Pelee

A erupção do Monte Pelée em 1902, na Martinica, sempre foi uma das que me fascinou. Por um lado, é um exemplo perfeito do poder de um vulcão para dizimar comunidades inteiras em um instante e, por outro lado, mostra a ignorância da humanidade em dar atenção aos avisos dados pela Terra de uma desgraça iminente. A Martinica dos dias modernos é uma ilha paradisíaca no arquipélago das Pequenas Antilhas, popular entre os turistas, mas intocada pelo turismo usual. Hoje, Fort-de-France é a capital e lar de pouco mais de 90.000 pessoas. Em 1902, este título foi dado à cidade de Saint-Pierre, mais ao norte do que Fort-de-France, e ficava no sopé do Monte Pelée.

Figura 1. Mt Pelé dos dias modernos

Embora todo o arco da ilha seja de origem vulcânica, devido à subducção da placa norte-americana sob a placa caribenha, houve poucos eventos vulcânicos na história recente. Na Martinica, o Monte Pelée é a forma vulcânica mais impressionante, com 4.583 pés na costa noroeste. As fases de erupção foram divididas em três fases: inicial, intermediária e moderna, que começaram há cerca de 5.000 anos. A atividade agora é bastante esporádica, com cerca de 30 erupções confirmadas até o momento em sua fase atual. Antes de 1902, Pelée tinha visto apenas pequenas erupções freáticas em 1792 e 1851, embora os habitantes locais estivessem muito conscientes de seu passado ardente. Durante o verão de 1900, a atividade parecia começar em torno da cratera de Etang Sec. A fumaça e a sismicidade eram baixas e pouca atenção foi dada. Em janeiro de 1902, a atividade fumarólica aumentou dramaticamente e, em fevereiro, os altos níveis de desgaseificação mataram centenas de pássaros, o que muitos locais pensaram ser apenas devido a doenças. As cobras começaram a fugir da fumaça e naquela primavera houve um número recorde de picadas de cobras letais, matando mais de 50 pessoas, principalmente crianças. Em abril, a sismicidade começou a aumentar dramaticamente, mas os residentes de Saint-Pierre ainda não temiam a montanha.

Em 23 de abril de 1902, a erupção real começou. Depois de uma explosão relativamente pequena, as cinzas caíram sobre seus flancos sul e oeste. Uma nova explosão no dia 25 enviou uma coluna de cinzas para o alto da ilha, vinda da cratera de Etang Sec. No dia seguinte as explosões se acalmaram, embora a queda de cinzas continuasse. Na época, a Martinica estava passando por uma grande mudança política. White governado desde que a França assumiu o controle da ilha nos anos 1600 e 8217, havia agora um líder negro da oposição tentando tomar o poder e uma grande eleição se aproximava em 11 de maio. Os residentes de Saint-Pierre estavam preocupados com isso e ignoraram os avisos que Pelee estava dando, nenhuma evacuação ocorreu. Em 27 de abril, quando as cinzas caíram, uma equipe foi enviada montanha acima para investigar. Eles encontraram Etang Sec cheio de água que fervia e emitia um fluxo constante de vapor. Dois dias depois, Riviere des Peres e Roxelane incharam quando a cratera transbordou, levando detritos pelos flancos e causando o caos em suas margens. Mas havia mais por vir & # 8230

2 de maio as explosões começaram novamente. A primeira, às 23h30, criou uma enorme coluna de erupção de densa fumaça negra e as explosões continuaram de 5 a 6 horas durante a noite. Quando a coluna de cinzas passou por Saint-Pierre, finalmente alguns residentes começaram a fugir. A cinza espessa cobriu edifícios e estradas dificultando sua fuga. Em 5 de maio, as coisas pareciam ter se acalmado, em seguida, parte da parede da cratera desabou, enviando água fervente e lahars descendo o vulcão. Vários trabalhadores foram mortos e as pessoas fugiram para Saint-Pierre, que era o lado oposto à destruição dos lahars. Os destroços e a água subindo para o mar na base dos vulcões. Às 13 horas, o mar recuou e um tsunami varreu o interior. Por volta das 4h da manhã de quarta-feira, 7 de maio, a atividade aumentou novamente nas cinzas do vulcão e raios vulcânicos puderam ser vistos ao redor do cume. Embora fora o dia, as pessoas tentaram deixar Saint-Pierre, mas ainda mais estavam tentando encontrar refúgio na cidade da área perto dos flancos dos vulcões. Pessoas assustadas não sabiam o que fazer. A notícia se espalhou que a ilha vizinha de São Vicente também havia experimentado uma erupção e as autoridades de Saint-Pierre tentaram tranquilizar as pessoas de que isso aliviaria a pressão em Pelée para que a erupção não piorasse.

À medida que o dia avançava novamente, as coisas pareciam se acalmar na manhã de 8 de maio, as coisas pioraram drasticamente. Pouco depois das 7h50, as transmissões telegráficas de Saint-Pierre foram interrompidas. Testemunhas que estavam em navios ao largo da costa disseram que a lateral do vulcão cedeu completamente perto do cume em uma explosão colossal. Uma densa coluna de erupção em forma de cogumelo escureceu o céu em segundos. Ao mesmo tempo, uma onda piroclástica disparou perpendicularmente à coluna e desceu pelos flancos em direção a Saint-Pierre a uma velocidade estimada de 670 km por hora. A onda brilhou com seu calor intenso, cinzas e material clástico queimando a mais de 1000 graus Celsius, nada em seu caminho estava seguro. Sua descrição deu origem a um novo termo para essa erupção, Nobe Ardente, francês para nuvem brilhante.

Figura 3. Possivelmente a imagem mais icônica do rescaldo de 23 de abril. Figura 4. A cela da prisão que salvou Louis-Auguste

Uma área com pouco mais de 21 quilômetros quadrados foi totalmente queimada ou incendiada incluindo a cidade. Na época, a população de Saint-Pierre & # 8217s era de cerca de 28.000, em 8 de maio era provável que o número fosse mais alto, já que as pessoas mais próximas do vulcão buscaram refúgio lá. Lá onde apenas dois sobreviventes confirmados. Louis-Auguste Cyparis, que havia sido jogado na prisão da cidade na noite anterior por envolvimento em uma briga de rua, conseguiu ser protegido em seus confins úmidos e escuros, embora tenha sofrido queimaduras bastante extensas. O segundo, Leon Compere-Leandre vivia na periferia da cidade, todos os outros em sua casa morreram, mas ele conseguiu fugir, apesar das horríveis queimaduras, 6 km para o vizinho Fonds-Saint-Denis.

Ao meio-dia, sem nenhum contato de Saint-Pierre, o governador em exercício baseado em Fort-de-France enviou o navio de guerra Suchet para investigar. Passaram-se horas antes que pudesse fazer a terra cair e as pessoas pudessem entrar na outrora grande cidade para o calor. Quando o fizeram, encontraram pouco remanescente, exceto os mortos e a devastação.

A ajuda foi enviada rapidamente para ajudar na operação de recuperação. Só os Estados Unidos ofereceram US $ 200.000 e enviaram pessoal da Marinha para ajudar. Canadá, Alemanha, França, Itália e Japão também ofereceram assistência. Mas o Monte Pelee não foi terminado.

Em 20 de maio, uma segunda erupção tão intensa quanto a de 8 de maio enviou outro fluxo piroclástico através de Saint-Pierre, matando 2.000 equipes de resgate e marinheiros que traziam suprimentos para a área. A atividade continuou em níveis de fundo durante todo o verão e em 30 de agosto outro fluxo piroclástico varreu a área matando pelo menos 800.

Os eventos de 1902 abriram os olhos de muitas pessoas para o poder e aniquilação causados ​​pela erupção, muitos até acreditam que foi o nascimento da ciência da vulcanologia. Deu origem a termos como n cycling ardente e Pelean eruption e levou a uma investigação mais aprofundada sobre os estilos de erupção. Quando o Monte Pelee voltou à vida em 1929, os avisos foram rapidamente atendidos e as evacuações ocorreram. A erupção mais mortal do século 21 pelo menos deixou um legado que salva vidas hoje.


O Monte Pelée começa a entrar em erupção, enterrando a cidade caribenha - HISTÓRIA

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A erupção do Monte Pelee foi o pior desastre vulcânico do século XX. Em menos de um minuto, o vulcão eviscerou toda a cidade de St. Pierre, a maior cidade da ilha caribenha da Martinica. Mais de 30.000 pessoas morreram - e apenas três sobreviveram.

Nos dias que antecederam 8 de maio de 1902, o vulcão estava fumegando e emitindo vapores por dias antes da erupção, mas os moradores já tinham visto isso antes. A maioria achava que não havia motivo para se preocupar - até que uma nuvem de cinzas desceu sobre a cidade.

Como então era provável que o Monte Pelee logo explodisse, o pânico cresceu rapidamente na cidade abaixo. Alguns fugiram, correndo o mais longe possível da cidade antes que o vulcão pudesse entrar em erupção.

Os jornais, porém, ainda garantiam às pessoas que era seguro ficar. Alguns tiveram até permissão para sair - e assim milhares de pessoas ficaram, até o momento em que o vulcão fez uma chuva de devastação sobre eles.

Então, em 8 de maio, enquanto as pessoas abaixo celebravam a festa da ascensão de Cristo ao céu, uma nuvem gigante em forma de cogumelo encheu o céu. Uma nuvem de cinzas surgiu sobre a cidade, brilhando com um calor incrível de quase 2.000 graus Fahrenheit. Em menos de 60 segundos, toda a cidade foi destruída.

Pessoas morreram queimadas no local, algumas tão rapidamente que nem sentiram um segundo de dor. Outros sentiram o sangue começar a ferver e tentaram escorrer, desabando sob a pedra-pomes e as cinzas quentes, com gritos tortos e agonizantes permanentemente presos em seus rostos. A própria cidade explodiu em chamas e, através da Martinica, uma neve macia de cinzas brancas caiu do céu.

Havia apenas três sobreviventes. Uma menina de dez anos chamada Havivra Da Ifrile conseguiu entrar em um barco e remar para se abrigar dentro de uma caverna até o resgate chegar. Léon Compère-Léandre, depois de ver as pessoas ao seu redor caindo mortas, saltou no oceano fervente. Seu corpo inteiro estava coberto de queimaduras, mas ele conseguiu sair vivo.

O outro sobrevivente foi um criminoso violento, Louis-Auguste Cyparis. Ele estava trancado em confinamento solitário em uma cela de pedra quando o vulcão entrou em erupção, o que, por acaso, o colocou no local mais seguro da cidade. Enquanto a cidade pegava fogo, Cyparis esperava, seu corpo coberto de queimaduras, pelo resgate. Ele passou quatro dias em uma cidade em chamas antes que a cidade ao seu redor esfriasse o suficiente para que uma equipe de ajuda viesse e o retirasse com vida.

O resto, porém, não teve tanta sorte. Todas as outras pessoas em St. Pierre morreram em um instante, varridas por um manto de cinzas e pedra-pomes vulcânica - vítimas do pior desastre vulcânico do século 20.

Depois de dar uma olhada no Monte Pelee, aprenda sobre a devastação do terremoto de São Francisco de 1906 e os piores desastres vulcânicos da história.


2. Visite Fort-de-France.

Quando estou visitando uma ilha tropical, gosto de ficar ao lado de verdadeiros habitantes locais, e não apenas funcionários de um resort sofredor que são pagos para serem bons. Achei o antigo centro de Fort-de-France um lugar relaxante para passar algumas horas e fácil de percorrer a pé. As ruas animadas são ladeadas por casas comerciais de dois andares com venezianas pintadas e varandas de ferro forjado. Há também uma das minhas características arquitetônicas favoritas: acabamento em madeira de gengibre.

Não me entenda mal, no entanto. A cidade não é nada bonita. É um lugar vivo e respirando para onde um terço da população da ilha converge diariamente, então é melhor evitar estradas durante a hora do rush. Ah, sim, há um forte enorme, datado de 1672, no topo de uma colina gramada com vista para a baía, imponente e fácil de visitar.

A cidade ganhou vida após a erupção do Monte Pelée em 1902, enterrando a antiga capital, chamada Saint-Pierre, e forçando a maioria dos residentes sobreviventes a se mudar para Fort-de-France. Talvez seja por isso que senti uma Belle Époque élan percorrendo muitos edifícios da cidade, incluindo o histórico Biblioteca Schoelcher. The ornate metal-and-glass structure—a quirky pastiche of Egyptian, Byzantine, and art nouveau influences built in Paris in 1889, then reassembled in Fort-de-France—is home to thousands of books belonging to 19th-century abolitionist Victor Schoelcher, the Abraham Lincoln of the French Antilles.

I would have liked to have spent more time exploring the five-story Hotel L’Impératrice, across from la Savanne, the town’s main public square. The first building on the island to have an elevator when it was finished in 1955, the hotel seems frozen in time—especially its sleepy lobby with dark wicker, fern-meets-palm-tree décor, and brown-and-beige cement tiled floor.

Unfortunately I had to cut my exploration of the city short due to a predicted afternoon shower. To cut my losses, I decided to head to Fort-de-France’s covered market for some souvenir shopping. With help from a wizened, tooth-challenged gentleman, I made it there just in time to hear the roar of rain on the turn-of-the-century metal roof and browse for handmade madras clothes, “Colombo” curry powder, and small-batch coconut-rum punch at the jumble of stalls in the cavernous building.


Mount Pelée begins to erupt, burying Caribbean city - HISTORY

In this lecture we will discuss three case histories of important eruptions that have occurred within recorded history. The eruption of Mount Vesuvius, Italy in 79 A.D., the eruption of Mount Pel e on the Caribbean island of Martinique in 1902, and the eruption of Mount St. Helens on May 18, 1980.

Vesuvius, 79 A.D.

Mount Vesuvius is located to the southeast of Naples, Italy along the Bay of Naples. Prior to the catastrophic eruption of 79 A.D. Vesuvius was considered an extinct volcano by the inhabitants of the area, who were flourishing at the height of the Roman Empire. The area northwest of Naples, known as the Phelegrean Fields, was known to be an active volcanic area, however. Nevertheless, When earthquakes became frequent in the Vesuvius area following a destructive 62 A.D. earthquake, they caused no alarm because earthquakes were common in the region.

We start with the account given by Pliny the Younger in his letters to Tacitus. About 1 P.M. on August 24, 79 A.D. the Plinys were in Misenum, about 30 km across the Bay of Naples from Vesuvius. A large cloud appeared above the volcano, growing rapidly, rising many thousands of meters and spreading out laterally in the atmosphere. Pliny the Younger states that the cloud had the shape of a Mediterranean pine tree, with a narrow trunk at the base, spreading out like branches above. Pliny the Elder was curious about the cloud and began to plan a trip across the bay to investigate. Before he could get his ship ready, he received word from people living closer to Vesuvius that people needed help, and his investigative mission became instead a rescue mission. He organized his fleet and set sail with the intention of rescuing people living near the base of the volcano at Torre del Greco. As he crossed the bay his ship was showered by hot ashes and pumice which accumulated on the deck. He soon found it was impossible to make the rescue attempt and he turned in the direction of the wind and instead landed at Stabiae, to the south of Vesuvius. At Stabiae, conditions were still mild and he encountered his friend Pomponianus who was trying to escape to the sea, but the winds were not favorable. In order to reassure Pomponianus that there was no danger, Pliny went to the local baths and sat down for a meal.

As night came, Pliny retired for several hours of sleep. During his sleep tephra began piling up in the courtyard of the house and earthquakes and loud explosions occurred in the area of Vesuvius. Pliny awakened by the trembling and loud noises and conferred with Pomponianus. They decided that their best escape was to go to the shore and try to leave by ship. They tied pillows to their heads for safety from the falling pumice, but darkness enveloped the area as a result of the falling tephra, and it remained dark even after the sun should have come up. They eventually made it to the shore, but found that the wind was not blowing in a direction favorable to sail away from the area. Suddenly Pliny the Elder began to feel poorly. He laid down on a cloth near the shore and asked for water twice. Then sulfurous fumes descended on the area making staying put an unpleasant experience. Pliny rose to move away from the area, but fell dead. His friends thought that he had been poisoned by the fumes, but no one else was affected. His friends all later escaped. Three days later Pliny's body was found, unmarked by any damage. It is highly unlikely that Pliny died of poisoning from the fumes because Stabiae is so far from Vesuvius it is more likely that he died from a heart attack resulting from his physical exertion in attempting to flee the falling ash.

The account given by Pliny the Younger says nothing about what happened to the towns of Pompeii and Herculaneum, close to the volcano. But his account of the "pine tree" like cloud above the volcano was the first description of an eruption column, and thus volcanic eruptions that produce eruption columns and fall deposits have taken on his and his uncle's name, and are referred to as Plinian eruptions.

The fate of Pompeii & Herculaneum was later unraveled by geological & archeological investigations.

Pompeii was located about nine kilometers down wind from Vesuvius, and was buried by

5 meters of tephra. It was thus abandoned for hundreds of years. In 1595 some of the ruins of Pompeii were discovered. People then began to search for buried treasures. In the 1800s the pyroclastic material that had buried started to be removed to reveal a well preserved instant in time.

The deposits show that a continuous rain of fall deposits, consisting mostly of pumice blocks and lapilli, fell on Pompeii. The falls, from a Plinian eruption column, where occasionally interrupted by surges and pyroclastic flows.

Pompeii was downwind from the vent and received the greatest thickness of the Plinian fall deposit (see map, above). According to Pliny&rsquos account, ash began falling in Pompeii about 1:00 PM. By about 5:00 PM it would have gotten thick enough that roofs would have started to collapse, resulting in some deaths.

Falling pumice would not have likely killed people, but falling lithic fragments and collapsing roofs would have killed people. Otherwise, people were likely fleeing, staying indoors, or climbing to stay above the pumice.

About 6:30 the following morning, the 4th collapse of the Plinian eruption column sent surge S-4 into Pompeii. This would likely have killed any remaining inhabitants, indoors or outdoors.

This surge was quickly followed by surges S-5 and S-6 which was immediately followed by a pyroclastic flow, F-6, which buried the city further.

These surges and later eruptions of accretionary lapilli and lithic surges, during a phreatomagmatic phase, completely buried Pompeii in up to 5 meters of pyroclastics.

During excavations, many human fossils were found. The bodies had been buried in ash, and rain falling on the ash had cemented it together to form molds around the bodies before they decayed.

After the bodies decayed an open cavity was preserved & archeologists made plaster of Paris casts of these cavities. Even animals (dogs, pigs, and horses) were found in the surge deposits.

Many of the bodies showed that the victims had likely died of asphyxiation from breathing the hot gas and fined grained ash. Their hands were clenched around their mouths probably in an attempt to filter out the dust prior to their deaths. Many corpses were found clutching bags of gold that they had gathered in an attempt to flee.

So far 1044 human remains have been found in and around Pompeii.

394 or 38% were found in the pumice fall deposits.

650 or 62% were found in the surge deposits.

All of the casts of victims were made from remains found in the surge deposits.

The destruction of Herculaneum was somewhat different. Herculaneum was located on the shore of the Bay of Naples at the base of Mount Vesuvius. Herculaneum has not been excavated to the extent of Pompeii because the modern city of Ercalono is built on top of it. It was buried by up to 23 meters of pyroclastic deposits. Instead of loose tephra fall deposits and thin surge deposits like at Pompeii, Herculaneum was buried by highly unsorted consolidated mixture of rock fragments & fine-grained ash erupted as pyroclastic flows and surges. These became partially lithified over time as a result of hot vapors flowing through shortly after the eruption and groundwater flowing through. Such consolidation makes excavation much more difficult at Herculaneum. Earlier geologic investigations suggested that these deposits were mudflows or lahars, but recent investigations show that they are instead deposits of pyroclastics the next thousand years. Within the 8 square blocks of Herculaneum that have been excavated, it first appeared that most of the residents had escaped death before the advance of the pyroclastic flows. But excavations near the ancient shoreline conducted in the 1980s found buildings supported by arched chambers open to the beach. Within these chambers and on the beach in front of them, over 300 skeletons were found. Thus it is likely that the residents ran to these buildings for shelter from the volcano or to escape to the sea, but were eventually engulfed in the pyroclastic flows and died.

Mount Pel e is a volcano on the northern part of the French Caribbean Island of Martinique. The city of St. Pierre lies about 6km to the southwest of the volcanic peak on the shores of the Caribbean Sea. Prior to 1902, the last eruption from the volcano had occurred in 1851. Below is a chronology of events leading up to and including the devastating eruption that took place on May 8, 1902.

1889 - Fumaroles appear in the summit crater

January, 1902 - Fumaroles in summit crater increase in number and strength.

March 2, 1902 - Climbers enter the crater and find that a dry lake bed in the crater is now emitting sulfur fumes from several points.

April 23, 9:00 PM - Minor explosive activity takes place in the dry lake bed in the crater. Ash released consists only of pre-existing rock fragments.

April 27 - An investigating party climbs into the crater and discovers that the dry lake now contains water and a small tephra cone.

April 27 through May 4 - Explosions continue from the summit crater, with occasional ash falls and sulfurous fumes reaching St. Pierre. Still, all of the ash is pre-existing fragments of the volcano.

May 5 - The water that has accumulated in the crater suddenly bursts through the walls of the crater and flows into the valley of the Riviere Blanche. As the water moves down the valley it picks up loose debris to become a mudflow that travels at 90 km/hr. It reaches a rum distillery near the coast, burying all but its smokestack, and killing 24 workers. The mudflow enters the Caribbean Sea and generates a tsunami with 3 to 4 m waves that flood the low lying parts of St. Pierre.

May 8, 7:50 AM - A loud blast is heard from the summit of Mt. Pel e.

May 8, 7:52 AM - All clocks in St. Pierre stop.

A powerful nu e ardentes rolls down the valley of the Riviere Blanche. The densest part of the cloud remains in the valley, but part of the pyroclastic flow overtops the valley walls and engulfs St. Pierre. All but 2 people out about 29,000 are killed in the next 2 to 3 minutes. Ships in the harbor catch fire and sink. Walls up to 1 meter thick are knocked down, roofs are blown off, and many burn, iron bars are bent and twisted, but some areas of the city are affected more than others. Still, nearly all humans and animals die, even in parts of the city not knocked down by the blast.

Many of the victims are badly burned, yet their clothing is not singed. Most appear to have died from asphyxiation due to breathing the hot mixture of gas and dust.

One survivor was locked in a small prison cell with only a small barred opening on facing the north. His body was badly burned and he reported that the heat only lasted a few seconds. This survivor later joined the circus and traveled around the world telling his story of survival and showing his badly burned back.

  • May 20 - A second nu e ardentes sweeps through St. Pierre. There are no deaths (They all died on May 8!)

Mt. St. Helens, 1980

In a 1975 volcanic hazards study of Mount St. Helens, U.S. Geological Survey geologists D.R. Crandell, D. Mullineaux and M. Rubin noted that Mount St. Helens had been built within the last 2,500 years with the last eruption in 1857. Major eruptions had occurred every hundred years or so and St. Helens was one of the most active volcanoes in the Cascade Range. In their paper they stated that Mount St. Helens "will erupt again in the next 100 years, perhaps before the end of the century."

Mount St. Helens did reawaken on March 21, 1980 when a magnitude 4.2 earthquake occurred beneath the volcano. Earthquakes continued until March 27 when a phreatic eruption occurred at the summit. Similar small eruptions took place through mid April and the summit of the mountain developed a new crater due to the explosions. Note that only pre-existing rock fragments were ejected during these initial eruptions. By mid-April volcanic tremor had begun beneath the mountain indicating the movement of magma. By the end of April surveys showed that the north face of the mountain above an older volcanic dome, known as the Goat Rocks Dome, had begun to bulge upwards and outwards at rates up to 1 m per day. By May 12, the bulge had displaced parts of the northern part of the volcano a distance of about 150 m. Geologists now recognized that this bulge could soon develop into a landslide, but were uncertain when or if it would occur and how big the slide would be. Most of the area in the danger zone (called the red zone) had been evacuated, but intense pressure from people with cabins and homes within the red zone forced the Governor of Washington to open the area to allow land owners to return under police supervision to retrieve their belongings. The first of these escorted entries into the red zone took place on May 17, and a second caravan was scheduled for the morning of May 18. Fortunately the latter expedition was not scheduled to leave until 9:00 A.M.

At 8:32 AM on May 18, 1980 a magnitude 5.0 earthquake occurred beneath Mt. St. Helens. This led to a violent eruption that took place over about the next minute. The earthquake triggered a large landslide that began to slide out to the north, initially as three large blocks. As the first block, containing the old Goat Rocks lava dome, began to slide downward, the magma chamber beneath the volcano became exposed to atmospheric pressure. The gas inside the magma expanded rapidly, producing a lateral blast that moved outward toward the north. As the second slide block began to move downwards a vertical eruption column began to form above the volcano. The lateral blast rapidly overtook the slide block and roared through an area to the north of the mountain, knocking down all trees in its path and suffocating all living things, including humans. Within the next 10 seconds the third slide block moved out toward the north. All slide blocks banked up against the mountain north of Spirit Lake and were then diverted down the North Fork of the Toutle River valley toward the west, breaking up into smaller blocks as they moved down slope. The landslide thus became a debris avalanche and left a deposit extending about 20 km down the valley (see map below). The southern shores of Spirit Lake were displaced about 1 km northward and the level of the lake was raised about 40 m. Harry Truman's Lodge was buried by the debris avalanche.

During this first minute of the eruption everything within the lateral blast zone had been knocked down and covered with a thin layer of ash. Trees along about a 100 m wide zone surrounding the blast zone had been stripped of their vegetation or severely singed to a brownish color. In all, 62 people lost their lives, either by being buried by the debris avalanche deposit, or suffocating by breathing the hot gases and dust of the blast. Some also died in the cars or trucks when pieces of wood were driven through the cars by the blast.

Logs were carried into the Columbia River and so much sediment accumulated in the shipping channel of the Columbia River that it cost several hundred million dollars to dredge the channel and remove the logs so that shipping could continue. Eastern Washington was covered in volcanic ash for months after the eruption and relief efforts were slow. Although the tephra fall deposits that accumulated in eastern Washington were anticipated by the prior volcanic hazards study, most planning for rescue and recovery had concentrated on the area immediately around Mount St. Helens.
In general, the eruption had been much larger than most anticipated, but the fact that a hazards study had been carried out, that public officials were quick to act and evacuate the danger zone, and that the volcano was under constant monitoring, resulted in the minimization of loss of life to only 57 instead of a much larger number that could have been killed had not these efforts been in place.

Examples of questions on this material that could be asked on an exam

    What types of volcanic activity was responsible for most of the deaths from each of the eruptions discussed?


THIS DAY IN HISTORY – 7TH MAY

This Day in History is DUE’s daily dose of trivia for all the history buffs out there. So sit back and take a ride of all the fascinating things that happened on 7th May.

People are trapped in history and history is trapped in people, and hence, every day has been a significant one in the foibles of history. Now, let’s take a tour of “This Day in History – 7th May”.

1861: ‘Bard of Bengal’ Rabindranath Tagore is born

Bengali poet Rabindranath Tagore was born today in Kolkata, India. Author of the ‘profoundly sensitive, fresh and beautiful verse’ do Gitanjali, he became the first non-European as well as the first lyricist to win the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1913. He influenced the introduction of Indian culture to the West and vice versa. Gitanjali (Song Offerings), Gora (Fair-Faced) e Ghare-Baire (The Home and the World) are his best-known works. He has also composed the national anthems of two nations: India’s ‘Jana Gana Mana’ and Bangladesh’s ‘Amar Shonar Bangla’.

Rabindranath Tagore

1902: Mount Pelée begins to erupt, burying the Caribbean city

Martinique’s Mount Pelée began the deadliest volcanic eruption of the 20th century, wiping the city Saint Pierre off the map. Caught up amid an important election, residents of Saint Pierre failed to heed the mountain’s warnings and evacuate. On May 7, activity on the volcano increased dramatically and overnight, a cloud of gas with a temperature of more than 3,000 degrees Fahrenheit spilt out of the mountain. This blast became an avalanche of boiling ash in the morning. The eruption buried the Paris of the Caribbean Saint Pierre within minutes, with only two reported survivors.

Mount Pelée

1960: Leonid Brezhnev becomes President of the USSR

Leonid Brezhnev was selected as Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet—the Soviet equivalent to the presidency. He was a trusted protégé of Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev who would go on to take control of the Soviet Union in 1964. The position allowed Brezhnev to come into contact with numerous foreign dignitaries and visitors as a representative of the Soviet government. In 1964, Khrushchev was removed from power and Brezhnev was named new first secretary. Brezhnev held that post for 18 years until his death in 1982.

Leonid Brezhnev

1994: Edvard Munch’s painting ‘The Scream’ recovered after theft

‘The Scream’ by Norwegian Expressionist Edvard Munch was stolen in only 50 seconds from the National Gallery during a break-in on February 12. It was the opening day of the 1994 Winter Olympics in Lillehammer. The thieves even left a note saying ‘Thank you for the bad security!‘ Police recovered the fragile painting undamaged at a hotel in Asgardstrand, about 40 miles south of Oslo.

The Scream by Edvard Munch

1998: Daimler-Benz announces purchase of Chrysler Corp.

The German automobile company Daimler-Benz–maker of the world-famous luxury car brand Mercedes-Benz–announced a $36 billion merger with the United States-based Chrysler Corporation. This was the biggest acquisition by a foreign buyer of any U.S. company in history. This gave birth to the new company DaimlerChrysler AG. But things didn’t work out too well. Under pressure from the Obama administration, Chrysler filed for bankruptcy protection in April 2009 and entered into a partnership with the Italian automaker Fiat. In 2014, the two companies became Fiat Chrysler Automobiles.

daimler.com

2017: Baahubali 2 becomes the highest-grossing Indian box office film

‘Baahubali 2: The Conclusion’ became the highest-grossing Indian box office film to cross over $131 million worldwide, beating the previous record-holder PK ($123 million). Hauling $13.1 million in the US alone, it also surpassed the earnings of Dangal in the territory. Directed by SS Rajamouli, Baahubali 2 is the sequel to the 2015 epic Baahubali : The Beginning. Planned as a two-part epic, this was the most expensive Indian production ever with an estimated budget of $40 million. Produced by Shobu Yarlagadda’s Arka Mediaworks the duology features top South Indian stars Prabhas, Rana Daggubati, Tamannaah and Anushka Shetty.

Baahubali 2: The Conclusion

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Mount Pelée begins to erupt, burying Caribbean city - HISTORY


Unusual facts

Tragedies and
catastrophies

Mystery and
parapsychology

- THE ERUPTION OF MOUNT PÉLÉE -

Mount Pelée is infamous for its eruption in 1902 and the destruction that resulted, the worst volcanic disaster of the 20th Century. The eruption caused about 26,000 to 36,000 casualties and destroyed Saint-Pierre, at that time the largest city in Martinque along with the island's governor.


Mount Pelée (French: Montagne Pelée, "Bald Mountain") is an active volcano on the northern tip of the French overseas department of Martinique in the Caribbean. It is a stratovolcano, its volcanic cone composed of layers of volcanic ash and hardened lava.

Before the tragic 1902 eruption, as early as the summer of 1900, signs of increased fumarole activity was present in the Etang Sec crater near the summit (Scarth, page 30). Relatively minor phreatic (steam) eruptions that occurred in 1792 and 1851 were evidence that the volcano was active and potentially dangerous. Local natives, the Carib people, knew it as "fire mountain" from previous eruptions in ancient times.

Though it was previously dormant, at least in living memory, Mount Pelée began its eruptions on April 25, 1902. In early April, excursionists noted the appearance of sulfurous vapors emitting from fumaroles near the mountaintop. This was not regarded as important, as fumaroles had been appearing and disappearing in the past.

• On April 23, the mountain caused a light rain of cinders on its southern and western side, together with sharp underground shocks.

• On April 25, the mountain emitted a large cloud containing rocks and ashes from its top, where the Étang Sec - a dry basin - was located. The ejected material did not cause a meaningful amount of damage.

• On April 26, the area was dusted by volcanic ash from a next eruption the public authorities still did not see a reason to worry.

• On April 27, several excursionists climbed the mountaintop to find Etang Sec filled with water, forming a lake 180 meters across. There was a 15 meter high cone of volcanic debris built up on one side, feeding the lake with a steady stream of boiling water. Sounds resembling a cauldron with boiling water were heard from deep underground. The strong smell of sulfur was all over the city, 4 miles away from the volcano, causing discomfort to people and horses.

• On April 30, the rivers Roxelane and Riviere des Peres swelled, carrying boulders and trees from the mountaintop. The villages of Precheur and Ste. Philomene were receiving a steady stream of ashes.

• At 11:30 p.m. on May 2, the mountain produced loud detonations, earthquakes, and a massive pillar of dense black smoke. Ashes and fine-grained pumice covered the entire northern half of the island. The detonation continued in 5-6 hour intervals. This led the local newspaper Les Colonies to indefinitely postpone the proposed picnic on the mountain, originally planned for May 4. Farm animals started dying from hunger and thirst, as their sources of water and food were contaminated with ash.

• On Saturday, May 3, the wind blew the ash cloud northwards, alleviating the situation in St Pierre. The next day the ash fall intensified, and the communication between St Pierre and the Precheur district was severed. The ash cloud was so dense that the coastal boats feared to navigate through it. Many citizens decided to evacuate, filling the capacity of the steamer lines. The area was covered with a layer of fine, flour-like white ash. The animals, wild and domestic alike, were growing restless the Guérin Sugar Works, two miles northwest of St. Pierre, was invaded by a great swarm of speckled ants and foot-long centipedes, which bit unfortunate horses while workers tried to subdue the frenzied insects. In St. Pierre, hundreds of restless fer-de-lance snakes slithered through the streets, biting anybody who did not stay out of their paths. Soldiers were called in to shoot the snakes, although not before a number of humans and domestic animals were killed by the snakes.

• On Monday, May 5, the mountain apparently calmed down somewhat however, at about 1 PM, the sea suddenly receded about 100 meters and then rushed back, flooding parts of the city, and a large cloud of smoke appeared westwards of the mountain. One wall of the Etang Sec crater collapsed and propelled a mass of boiling water and mud, or lahar, into Riviere Blanche, flooding the Guérin sugar works and burying about 150 victims under 60 to 90 meters of mud. Refugees from other areas rushed into St Pierre. That night, the atmospheric disturbances disabled the electric grid, sinking the city into darkness and adding to the confusion.

• The next day, at about 2 AM, loud sounds were heard from within the depth of the mountain.

• On Wednesday, May 7, at around 4 AM, the mountain stepped up its activity the clouds of ash caused numerous lightnings around the mountaintop, and both the craters glowed reddish orange into the night. Through the day, people were leaving the city, but more people from the countryside were attempting to find refuge in the city, increasing its population by several thousand. The newspapers still claimed the city was safe. News of the volcano Soufrière erupting on the nearby St. Vincent island reassured the people that the internal pressures in the mountain were being relieved. Not everyone was reassured, though Captain Marina Leboffe, of the barque Orsolina, left the harbor with only half of the sugar cargo loaded, despite shippers' protests, clearance refused by the port authorities, and threats of being arrested.[citation needed] However, Governor Louis Mouttet and his lady stayed in the city. By the evening, the mountain's tremors seemed to calm down again.

The main eruption, on May 8, 1902, on the Ascension Day, destroyed the town of Saint-Pierre, about 4 miles south of the peak.

In the morning, people were observing the fireworks the mountain was showing off. The night shift telegraph operator was sending the reports of the volcano's activity, to the operator at Fort-de-France, claiming no significant new developments his last transmission was "Allez", handing over the line to the remote operator. It was 7:52 the next second the telegraph line went dead. A cable repair ship had the city in direct view the upper mountainside ripped open and a dense black cloud shot out horizontally. A second black cloud rolled upwards, forming a gigantic mushroom cloud and darkening the sky in 50 miles radius. The initial speed of both clouds was later calculated to over 670 kilometers per hour.

The horizontal pyroclastic cloud was hugging the ground, speeding down towards the city of Saint Pierre, appearing black and heavy, glowing hot from the inside. In under a minute it reached the city, instantly igniting everything combustible it came in contact with, covering the entire city.

A rush of wind followed, this time towards the mountain. Then came a half-hour downpour of muddy rain mixed with ashes. For the next several hours, all communication with the city was severed. Nobody knew what was happening, nor who had authority over the island, as the governor was unreachable and his status unknown. Some survivors were picked from the sea mostly badly burned sailors, who had been blown into the sea by the blast and then clung for hours to floating debris.

A warship arrived towards the shore at about 12:30, but the heat prevented landing until about 3 PM. The city burned for several more days. The area devastated by the pyroclastic cloud covered about 8 square miles, with the city of St. Pierre taking its brunt. The cloud consisted of superheated steam and volcanic gases and dust, with temperatures reaching over 1000 °C.

Saint Pierre had a population of some

30,000, which was swelled by refugees from the minor explosions and mud flows first emitted by the volcano. There were pitifully few survivors: Ludger Sylbaris, a prisoner held in an underground cell in the town's jail (later pardoned), and Léon Compere-Léandre, a man who lived at the edge of the city. Some sources also list Havivra Da Ifrile, a little girl. One woman, a housemaid, also survived the pyroclastic flow but perished soon after the only thing she remembered from the event was sudden heat. She died very shortly after being discovered. Included among the victims were the passengers and crews of several ships docked at Saint Pierre.

One passenger steamship, the Roraima, which went missing on April 26, was believed to have been engulfed by ash from a preliminary explosion. However, it reached the port of Saint Pierre at 6:30 AM, shortly before the eruption, and was set aflame by the nuée ardente. It later sank its wreck is still present offshore of Saint Pierre 28 of her crew and all the passengers except two were killed by the cloud.

Mount Pelée continued to erupt until 4 July 1905.

• On May 20, a second eruption equal to the first one in both type and force obliterated what was left of St Pierre.

• During a powerful eruption on August 30, 1902, a pyroclastic flow extended further east than the flows of 8 and 20 May. Although not quite as powerful as the previous two eruptions, the August 30 pyroclastic flow struck Morne Rouge (at least 800 fatalities), Ajoupa-Bouillon (250 fatalities), and parts of Basse-Pointe (25 fatalities) and Morne-Capot (10 fatalities). This was the last fatal eruption of Mount Pelée until the present time.

• Beginning in October 1902, a dramatic volcanic spine grew from the dome in the Etang Sec crater, reaching a maximum height of 1617m (272m above the dome). Called the "Needle of Pelée", this extraordinary volcanic feature collapsed during 1903.

The study of the causes of the disaster marks the beginning of modern volcanology with the definition and the analysis of the deadliest volcanic hazard: the pyroclastic flows and surges, also called "nuées ardentes" (Fr: burning clouds). The eruption has also lent its name to the "Pelean eruption style". Among those who studied Mount Pelée were Angelo Heilprin and Antoine Lacroix. The illustrious Lacroix was the first to meticulously describe the "nuée ardente" phenomenon (Scarth, p.207).

The destruction caused by the 1902 eruption was quickly publicized by recent modern means of communication. It brought to the attention of the public and governments the hazards and dangers of an active volcano.

Mt. Pelée Today

As of 2006, the killer volcano with its long history of extreme violence quietly rests above Saint Pierre and the beautiful northern Martinique countryside. But Pelée could reawaken at any time. Before the tragic 1902 eruption, as early as the summer of 1900, signs of increased fumarole activity were present in the Etang Sec crater (Scarth, p.30). Relatively minor phreatic (steam) eruptions that occurred in 1792 and 1851 were evidence that the volcano was active and potentially dangerous. Signs of unrest will almost certainly precede any future eruptive activity from Mt. Pelée, and its past activity (including the violent eruptions uncovered by carbon dating) is an extremely important factor for hazard assessment.

During the catastrophic May 8, 1902 eruption, 2 (possibly 3) individuals survived out of

30,000 people in Saint-Pierre. Others died in areas near the city (c.400 died in a semaphore station on Morne Folie) and many perished on ships in the harbor. Pelée is the most active volcano in the West Indies and will almost certainly erupt again. Fortunately, Mount Pelée is under continuous watch by geophysicists and volcanologists (IPGP).


Sundin column: Volcanic eruptions, a history lesson

With the world facing the COVID-19 pandemic, overpopulation and global warming with widespread drought and forest fires, one threat we do not have to worry about is volcanic eruptions. Other than the shallow Dotsero Crater, which was produced by a minor magma and water explosion around 4,000 years ago, Colorado has had no volcanic activity for tens of thousands of years.

Most of the world’s volcanic activity is in the Pacific Rim, which includes Indonesia, Japan, Alaska, the Pacific coasts of Canada and the United States, and Hawaii. The U.S. has the third most volcanic activity in the world, after Indonesia and Japan, with most of that being in Alaska.

Volcanic threats in the mainland U.S. are along the West Coast, including Mount Rainier and Mount St. Helens in Washington, Mount Shasta and Lassen Peak in California, and Mount Hood and South Sister Peak in Oregon, which are all classified as potentially “active volcanoes.”

The most famous volcanic eruption in human history was Mount Vesuvius near Naples, Italy, on Aug. 24, 79, which sent a pyroclastic flow onto Pompei and Herculaneum, burying them in up to 60 feet of ash and killing an estimated 16,000 people. A second eruption on Dec. 16, 1631, killed another 4,000. Since then, the nearby Naples Metropolitan District., with a population of 4.5 million, has seen 21 minor eruptions, the last of which was in 1947 during the American invasion of Italy in World War II.

The eruption of Mount Laki in Iceland on June 2, 1783, spewed 120 million tons of sulfur dioxide (and 3.7 cubic miles of lava) into the atmosphere over a span of eight months, affecting the climate of much of the northern hemisphere, creating a cold wave that destroyed crops, leading to massive deaths from starvation in Europe and of more than 15% of the populations of Japan, Egypt and Alaska. In the spring of 2010, a much-less-severe eruption of another mountain in Iceland cast an estimated 330 cubic yards of rock particles into the atmosphere, causing an enormous disruption of trans-Atlantic air travel.

The two largest and most violent, and most devastating, volcanic eruptions on record both occurred in Indonesia in the 19th century. They were heard as far away as 2,000 to 3,000 miles. Mount Tambora, on the island of Sumbawa, erupted on April 12-14, 1815, blowing the top third of the mountain away and killing 11,000 people. It put so much debris and gases into the atmosphere (36 cubic miles of rock and ash and 60 million tons of SO2 and hydrogen sulfidesulfur dioxide) that it caused crop failures resulting in the death of another 60,000 people in Indonesia. As the haze spread around the world, it cut off enough sunlight to cause crop failures throughout the world, resulting in the deaths of 200,000 people worldwide.

As a result, 1816 was called the year without a summer, and in the U.S. “eighteen hundred froze to death” due to extreme temperature drops, according to historical accounts.

Then on Aug. 26-27, 1883, Mount Krakatoa in the Sunda Strait between Sumatra and Java exploded, killing 38,000 people from the explosion and resulting tidal waves.

The next major volcanic eruption occurred on the Island of Martinique in the Caribbean Sea on May 8, 1902, when Mount Pelee exploded, sending a pyroclastic flow onto the nearby city of St. Pierre, killing the entire population of 28,000, except for one man who had been incarcerated in a deep underground cell.

On Nov. 13, 1985, an eruption of Nevada del Ruiz in Colombia created a “lahar” (a flood of mud precipitated by the melting of snow and ice at the summit) that buried the city of Amero, killing all 23,000 residents. The same thing had happened in 1845. In spite of that, they had rebuilt the city on the same spot — and guess what happened? There is now concern about a lahar from Mount Rainier descending on Puyallup, Tacoma and the surrounding communities.

Japan’s most devastating volcanic eruption resulted from an earthquake on May 21, 1792, near Nagasaki, on Kyushu (the south island of Japan). A devastating landslide 100-feet thick, traveling at 30 miles per hour, slid into the bay, generating a 330-foot high tsunami that killed 15,000 people.


Hiking Mount Pelée: The "Pompeii" of the Caribbean

A trip to Martinique wouldn’t be complete without a trek up Mount Pelée. Hikers navigate circuitous but well-maintained jungle roads into a verdant paradise. Release any stress not already forgotten in the Caribbean waters as you plunge into crystalline rivières that tumble from Martinique’s highest peaks. Traverse exposed ridgelines into the surreal caldera of the island’s only active volcano.

At 4,583 feet, Mount Pelée towers over fishing villages, townships nestled in the landscape’s folds, and Saint-Pierre, the island’s former capital. Perilously placed in the volcano’s foothills, Saint-Pierre was formerly known as "the Paris of the Caribbean," a nod to the town’s bygone grandeur. On May 8, 1902, Mont Pelée erupted, decimating the town and 30,000 inhabitants with a swift pyroclastic flow containing superheated gasses, lava, and hot volcanic debris.

Among the rubble was Louis-Auguste Cyparis, a belligerent man constantly involved in bar brawls. The night before the eruption, police locked Cyparis in solitary confinement and unknowingly saved his life. The thick cell resisted fire, debris, and scorching volcanic gasses, barely shielding Cyparis from death. Of those who remained in Saint-Pierre, he was the sole survivor. His first-hand account attracted the attention of Barnum & Bailey Circus and Cyparis spent the rest of his days touring as "the man who lived through Doomsday."

Mount Pelée from Saint-Pierre. ANDRE ALLAGUY-SALACHY

The fishing village’s 1902 ruins are well preserved and visitors learn about Cyparis and the eruption on a self-guided walking tour. Cyparis’s cell still stands, a stout building protected by formidable walls. In the same area are shops that feature produce and locally made gifts. If you’re lucky, shopkeepers will share personal stories of the eruption passed down through generations. Today, only 5,000 people populate Saint-Pierre.

Another eruption shouldn’t impede your hike, thanks to geophysicists and volcanologists who monitor the volcano’s seismic activity. Besides the satisfaction of climbing the Pompeii of the Caribbean, explorers can enjoy challenging boulder scrambles, a fern forest in the caldera, and breath-taking vistas of land and sea. Lush tropical forest covers the volcano’s base, featuring unique plants such as red ginger and orchids.

The steep, rocky trails are perfect for adventurers seeking a physical challenge. Don’t forget trekking poles. Check the forecast the morning of your hike, and be prepared for a sporadic Caribbean shower. Begin as early as possible, as clouds descend on all four main trails in the afternoon.

The views are impeccable when hiking Mount Pelée. Antoine Hubert

o Grand-Rivière *and *Macouba routes begin in northern fishing towns untouched by the passage of time. These are the longest and most isolated routes, at 4.7 and 5 miles one way, respectively. They follow trails used by banana and sugarcane plantations before converging under a man-made mahogany forest. The trail becomes steeper before reaching an open savannah. As you ascend Morne Macouba, a 4,100’ peak with stunning northern views, the trail narrows to an exposed ridge formed by the outer edge of the caldera. Follow the ridge until you reach the trail’s terminus at a shelter.

O popular Ajoupa Bouillion hike begins north of Morne-Rouge. A volcano museum in this town showcases artifacts and models of volcanic events and is well worth a post-hike visit. The 7-mile round trip trail begins on the Aileron, a protrusion on Pelée’s eastern flank. Clouds often shroud the mountain’s windward side, so this trail yields the best views in the morning. Ascend stairs and fallen rock to switchbacks that lead to the crater rim. The exposed hike features top-of-the-world panoramic views.

Follow a sign in the direction of Le Chinois (the "Chinese man") and the cones named 1902 and 1929 to descend into the caldera. Thick fern forests, reminiscent of Jurassic Park, thrive in this moist, sheltered environment. Sunlight rarely reaches these slick rocks, making for a slow, treacherous climb. Take your time as you ascend to the 4,476-foot cone of 1902, which boasts outstanding northern views.

To reach Pelée’s highest peak, continue along the outer rim, turn left, and practice your bouldering technique as you climb jumbled rocks leading to Le Chinois. The 45-minute ascent is where you’ll be happy to have trekking poles. Pelée’s true summit features spectacular views of Saint-Pierre, the northern tip of Martinique, and the nearby island of Dominica.

Less frequented than Ajoupa Bouillion, the Grande-Savane hike is a beeline to the top. Just south of the village of Le Pêcheur, a rutted, one-track road winds through family homesteads. It climbs 2,000 feet and dead ends at the trailhead. The trail meanders through Caribbean jungle before gaining 1,500 feet over a 1.5-mile climb. Situated on the volcano’s leeward side, the hike is drier and clouds don’t accumulate as early in the day as on other sections. True to its name, the Grande-Savane route cuts through a vast savanna. It rises swiftly, intersects the caldera loop, and follows the same steep boulder scramble to Le Chinois.

Decades after volcanic rumblings destroyed Saint-Pierre, Mount Pelée beckons adventurers to her summit. On a cloudless day, a hike up this iconic volcano is sublime. Lush forests open into vast grasslands that narrow to steep, rocky ridges. From dreamlike vantage points high in the clouds, sailboats and yachts seem a world away. Panoramic views and quick elevation gains make the unforgettable Mount Pelée hike feel like a stairway to heaven.


Assista o vídeo: 30,000 People Killed, Only One Survivor. The Eruption Of Mount Pelee. Timeline


Comentários:

  1. Mariner

    Sinto muito, mas na minha opinião, você está errado. Eu sou capaz de provar isso. Escreva para mim em PM.

  2. Yozshular

    Ótimo, é uma coisa engraçada

  3. Bragrel

    Que resposta interessante

  4. Othomann

    Isso parece fazer o truque.

  5. Hezekiah

    Este é apenas um tópico sem pares.

  6. Daviot

    Peço desculpas, mas não se aproxima absolutamente de mim.

  7. Ogelsby

    Esta é a excelente ideia

  8. Spence

    Isso não se encaixa em mim.Existem outras variantes?



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